Scania presents at the 2018 IAA its new L 320 6×2 truck, available in two versions – hybrid and plug-in hybrid. Both seem similar (electric motor power and battery capacity), beside thatthe PHEV has the capability to charge externally.
With an 18.4 kWh battery (limited to 7.4 kWh for longevity), the trucks can go up to 10 km (6 miles) in all-electric mode when the battery is full.
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First, on the market will be the HEV (from November 2018), while the PHEV will follow in 2019.
Versatile hybrid trucks for urban applications
- PHEV/HEV based on Scania’s new truck generation
- For urban applications in distribution and construction
- Runs 10 km with zero tailpipe emissions
- Fuel savings of up to 15 percent expected, can run on HVO
- Scania Zone facilitates sustainable operation in sensitive areas
- Electric PTO and potential for PIEK compliance open for night-time city operations on uncongested streets
At the IAA fair in Hanover, Scania is disclosing a plug-in hybrid electric truck (PHEV) based on the new truck generation. The PHEV and its sibling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) truck can use Scania Zone to facilitate seamless compliance with emissions and speed regulations in certain zones.
“We at Scania continue on our eMobility pathway with a ‘here and now’ approach, offering solutions that have the necessary capabilities in place for supporting urban customers in a sustainable way from day one,” says Maria Johansson, acting Product Director, Urban, Scania Trucks. “We will first introduce a HEV version, and a PHEV will follow next year. Scania customers get a solution with reliable hardware, regenerative charging, no range anxiety, zero tailpipe emissions and without compromising their total operating economy.”
The new hybrid trucks are powered by Scania’s DC09, an inline five-cylinder engine that can run on HVO (hydro treated vegetable oil) or diesel, working in parallel with an electric machine generating 130 kW (177 hp) of power and 1,050 Nm. The lithium-ion rechargeable battery’s energy window is set to 7.4 kWh to secure a long battery life. The trucks can be driven in fully electric mode without any support from the combustion engine, thanks to electric auxiliaries for steering and brake air supply.
“Hybrids are state-of-the-art in terms of the total operating economy, uptime and sustainability of today’s urban truck operations,” says Johansson. “Combined with HVO, it will bring CO2 reductions of up to 92 percent while offering outstanding productivity in the ever-expanding urban areas where truck operators are facing challenges such as safety issues, environmental demands and congested streets.”
Scania’s HEV can be ordered from November 2018, the PHEV will follow in 2019.
More about Scania’s hybrid trucks
Scania’s first HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) was based on the former truck generation, known as the PGR. Here Jesper Brauer, Product Manager, Urban, Scania Trucks, talks in more detail about the solutions and intentions behind the new Scania hybrid vehicles based on the new truck generation.
Why a Scania hybrid? What’s the customer value?
“We can see how most new truck solutions operating in urban areas will gradually migrate to full electrification in the next decade when the battery technology and the necessary infrastructure are in place. But until then our industry is in what I would call a transition period, where solutions like hybrids and alternative fuels – or a combination of the two, like our hybrid trucks – will offer the best solutions and reasonable total operating economy figures for real-world customers.”
“Scania’s new hybrid trucks can operate day in and day out in challenging urban environments, offering the same uptime and foreseeable need for maintenance as conventional Scania trucks. But when adding the electric, zero-tailpipe-emission capabilities, they turn into a tool that offers a sustainable transport solution like no other comparable truck. Their powerful electric machine and a useful operative range of 10 km in electric mode open up a world of opportunities.”
“Distribution trucks as well as urban construction trucks will, for instance, have the opportunity to fulfil tasks in areas that are sensitive and crowded in the day during night time instead. They have zero emissions and noise levels well below the 72 dB(A) that have become a de-facto standard, based on the Dutch PIEK regulation.”
What is Scania’s strategy regarding charging and battery usage?
“The lithium-ion technology is still the best proven solution available. Just like in our former HEV truck, the HEV/PHEV trucks are primarily utilising regenerative braking for their charging by capturing kinetic energy. The intention is to drive the truck in Auto Zero Tailpipe Emission (ZTE) mode, which means that the electric machine is always used to start moving and at lower speeds, provided that energy is available in the battery. Using the Auto ZTE mode will result in the lowest possible fuel consumption since it will cut the internal combustion engine (ICE) every time that is favourable.”
“The coming PHEV (plug-in) option will mean that the truck can always start its work fully charged. Then complementary charging can also be carried out during a driver’s shift while their truck is parked for loading or unloading, or while they are resting. Adding 22 kW of power to the battery takes about 20 minutes with a regular power supply. Even more considerable fuel savings can be achieved in this way.”
“We have set quite conservative parameters for battery usage, to secure a long battery life. By avoiding battery drainage and high spikes, the battery will last between four to seven years under normal conditions, depending on the operation. The driver can force battery charging while driving (to prepare for their expected need for ZTE driving) but that will of course result in a fuel penalty.”
How can the driver steer and monitor battery usage?
“In these vehicles, the driver can monitor the energy flow in the instrument cluster. When the brakes are applied, the truck will be able to tell whether the brake power provided by the electric machine can handle all the regenerated energy or the exhaust brake or if service brakes must provide support. In a display in the instrument cluster, blue arrows will show if the generated power can be fed straight back into the battery. If the driver actually brakes harder than what the regenerative system can handle, the arrows will turn yellow.”
“Just like with any other heavy truck, a planned, driving style using anticipation pays off from many perspectives. The display in the instrument cluster also shows the battery’s status and the expected ZTE driving range.”
“These trucks have an electric retarder, with the typical Scania retarder lever on the steering column. It offers five various positions: 1-3 mean braking only with the electric machine; position 4 means maximal braking with the electric machine plus utilising the ICE’s exhaust brake; while position 5 means that a downshift for increased engine braking is added.”
Which engine options are available with the hybrid?
“The truck can be ordered with any DC09 engine, with 280, 320 or 360 hp. The truck on display at IAA has a DC09 320 engine.
What more is new about this hybrid truck generation?
“We have included a new power boost option in these trucks, for instance. If the driver does a kick-down, the electric machine will offer a power boost of 50 kW or some 250 Nm, provided that the battery is sufficiently charged. If the driver chooses Performance mode, an extra boost of 20 kW or 150 Nm is always added during acceleration even if the kick-down function is not engaged.”
“In fact, our hybrids will automatically boost the available torque in many situations
to avoid the need for downshifts, which of course increases the fuel-saving potential. They will in general use quite different gear-shifting strategies compared with conventional trucks. The typical starting gear is 5 or 6, thanks to the massive torque that is readily available from the electric machine. And when braking or reducing the speed of a vehicle, down-shifts are avoided to maximise power regeneration.”
What about the electric PTO, how is that useful?
“In order to utilise the truck’s full potential, urban truck solutions like these need to have a full set of capabilities, like an electric mode functionality that ensures that the truck remains silent and the possibility to operate bodybuilding features like a crane without creating a disturbing noise.
“We have also provided the hybrids with electric power steering and an electric brake compressor, which means they can run in truly electric mode without having to put the ICE on idle for brake air supply, for instance.”
What about services and financing?
“When we offer solutions like this, they will gradually come with the kind of services that will help our customers take full advantage of them. Neither the complete truck nor the ICE is ‘complicated’, but as always when electrification is part of the picture, factors like residual value, battery life-length and reparability must be taken into consideration.”
How does Scania Zone fit in with hybrid trucks?
“Scania Zone is an optional Scania Fleet Management service that fits excellently with hybrid trucks, for instance, but Scania Zone can of course be used with all kinds of modern Scania Trucks.”
“Scania Zone supports drivers by facilitating compliance with traffic regulations or local environmental zones. Scania Zone delivers position-based adjustments or suggestions in pre-defined zones in real time to the vehicle, thus helping the driver
to comply with the rules.”
“Our PHEV/HEV can use functions in Scania Zone such as Speed limit and Automated electric mode when entering a sensitive geographical zone. When the truck leaves the zone, it automatically returns to regular operation.”
Please find a separate press release about Scania Zone in Scania’s IAA press kit.
Which kinds of operations would trucks like this be suitable for?
“They will of course fit within Scania’s modular system and we offer a number of cab series and axle configurations for both tractors and rigid trucks. In combination with the three different power levels we offer with DC09, it means that a broad variety of urban application trucks can be tailor-made based on our hybrids, and they will be capable of handling GTWs weighing up to or even more than 26 tonnes.”
“All kinds of distribution trucks are what first comes to my mind, but it doesn’t stop there. Urban tippers, preferably with L-series cabs, as well as waste-handling trucks and all kinds of vehicles for public maintenance in urban environments will most likely fit within this solution since we offer P- and G-series cabs as well.”
Can you guarantee the 10 km range?
“It is never black or white when talking about range. Yes, 10 km is a relevant number under normal conditions, but it can of course vary. It depends a lot on the driving conditions, the number of stops and starts, whether or not it is hilly, the outside temperature and so on. Under ideal conditions, the actual figure can also be higher.”
Finally, what’s it like driving a hybrid like this one?
“It is a truly relaxed experience, just like driving any other Scania truck from the new generation. This actual truck at IAA has an L-series cab which of course adds extra capabilities when driving in busy urban environments. But apart from that, this could be any Scania distribution truck since the smart functions and the sustainability are so well integrated in the truck itself. And it handles well; you won’t notice the extra weight and the powertrain works seamlessly.”
“And that is kind of the point: operating innovative trucks like Scania’s hybrid should not be more complicated than operating a ‘normal’ truck. Scania as a manufacturer and all our potential customers out there have a learning curve to climb the coming decade. That is why each commercial step that the solutions customers are expected to actually pay for and earn money from, has to be a real-world solution capable of handling real challenges.”